Monday night Irish Class, April 4, 2011

Irish Class, April 4, 2011

Rang Gaeilge, 4ú lá mí Aibreáin 2011

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Fadas: áéíóúÁÉÍÓÚ

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Taispeáin agus Inis — “Show and Tell”

óinseach foolish woman f2
“achanna” “buts”
saol life
simplí simple
babhtáil exchange, swap, barter, shuffle, deal f3, v
cluiche game
margadh market, bargain, agreement m1
margaigh market v
roinn department
tháinig sé chun solais it came to light
aire minister m4 (of gov’t)
sóisearach junior a1
éigeantach required, mandatory

From Obama – beidh mé sa reicneáil in 2012.

Thug Barack Obama le fios inniu ar theachtaireachtaí físeáin
agus in ephost chuig a lucht tacaíochta go bhfuil sé ar intinn aige dul chun
cinn don dara téarma Uachtaránachta. Go dtí seo níor fhógair ach aon duine amháin, an Poblachtach
Tim Pawlentey gur rún dó dul san iomaíocht do thoghchán 2012. Dúirt an tUachtarán Obama gur rún dó luí
isteach ar an obair atá idir láimh aige agus
nach mbainfidh a dhúshlán don dara téarma den obair atá ar bun aige faoi láthair.

reic sale
reicneáil reckoning
teachtaireacht message f3
tacaíocht support f3
intinn mind, spirit, intention
fís vision f2 pl físeanna
chun to, towards
cinn fix, determine, descree
fógair declare, proclaim
rún secret, intention
rún dó luí isteach he intends to lay into
atá idir láimh aige with what is on his hands
íomaíocht competition
toghchán election
luí state of rest, inclination, tendency
dúshlán challenge, defiance
bain … amach arrive, reach
bain … le connect
bain … den obair … take away from the work
faoi láthair at present
atá ar bun aige faoi láthair that he has at present

malairt & milleán

malairt
malairt change, alternative, exchange
leisceoir lazy person
saothar work, labor m1
sos rest, break (from work)
is é a mhalairt fíor the opposite is true
cúis cause, reason
easpa lack
Le heaspa a mhalairt lack of an alternative
trócaireach merciful, lenient, compassionate
síth peace
cogadh war
aigne mind, disposition, intention f4
fonn desire, inclination ,1
díol payment
need, requirement
gamal fool m1
fearthainn rain, rainfall f2
dealramh appearance, resemblance, sheen, radiance m1
scamall cloud m1
scuabadh sweeping

Mhalairt Odysseus Scylla ar Charybdis.
Odysseus exchanged Charybdis for Scylla.

Is maith a mhalairt earrach ar geimhreadh.
Spring for winter is a good exchange.

milleán
milleán blame m1
cluiche game, joke
báire match, contest, goal
mí-ádh bad luck
áirithe certain, particular (a); certainty, certain quantity, allotment (n) f4 as n
urchar cast, shot m1
socair quiet, still, calm
ciontach guilty, culprit
dream group of people
maraigh kill
leisce laziness
cigire inspector m4
moltóir referee, umpire

Cuireann oibrí dona millen air a chuid uirlisí.
A poor worker blames his tools.

Má chailltear an cluiche is an moltóir a bhíonn a mhilleán.
If a game is lost the
umpire will be blamed.

Cuir a mhilleán ar an duine as láthair.
Blame the absent person.


Copula Summary — patterns

From Will’s handout with additional notes

  1. No é

    Copula links two indefinites: “An X is a Y.”

    Is éan spideog. A robin is a bird.
    Is ainmhí sionnach. A fox is an animal
    Is bláth rós. A rose is a flower
    Is gadaí pioráid. A pirate is a thief

  2. Classification of he/she/it/they

    These are classification (aicme) sentences with a pronoun subject. They end up with just one pronoun,
    the one that is the subject: “He is an X.”

    Is éan í. It is a bird
    Is ainmhí é. It is an animal
    Is saighdiúirí iad. They are soldiers
    Is gadaí é sin.

  3. Classification with Proper Noun Subject

    These are like #2, but the he/she/they subject has been replaced with a definite noun. When that
    happens, the definite noun is preceded by a pronoun, according to the convention mentioned above, so
    that a sentence that says, “Charlie Sheen is an actor,” ends up seeming to mean something like,
    “Charlie Sheen is an actor him” or “He Charlie Sheen is an actor.”

    That extra pronoun is just part of the definite noun when it follows the copula, and it doesn’t have to be
    translated.

    Is éan í an spideog. The robin is a bird.
    Is ainmhí é an sionnach. The fox is an animal.
    Is aisteoir é Charlie Sheen. Charlie Sheen is an actor.
    Is feilmeoirí iad na fir sin. Those men are farmers.
    Is gadaí é mac an mhúinteora. The son of the teacher is a thief. The noun phrase, “son of the teacher,” identifies a very specific person, so it is
    a definite (even a proper) noun.

  4. Identification with Two Definite Nouns

    When we have two definite nouns, the one immediately following the copula will get that extra
    pronoun. This produces sentences much like our previous category, where we seem to have three
    things, but only translate two:

    Is é Charlie Sheen an t-aisteoir is fearr. Charlie Sheen is the best actor.
    Is í Madonna an bhean is ciúine. Madonna is the quietest woman. ciúin: calm, still
    Is é an sagart an fear is craiceáilte. The priest is the craziest man

  5. Identification with Definite Noun = Pronoun

    This pattern causes problems.

    In this case, the subject of the sentence, as it is
    translated, is a pronoun, he/she/it/they. The definite noun in the copula sentence is what we are saying
    about the subject. But in the Irish version, the definite noun phrase comes first, and it feels like there
    are too many pronouns.

    Resist that feeling: The first pronoun is in a unit with the definite noun.
    The second one corresponds to the English pronoun.

    The first pronoun is just the one connected
    to the definite noun, and the second one is the “he/she/they” of the sentence. You need both pronouns because the first one is part of that noun
    phrase, and will not be translated.

    Is é an t-aisteoir é. He is the actor
    Is í an t-amhránaí í. She is the singer
    Is iad na saighdiúrí iad. They are the soldiers.

  6. Fronting the Adjective for Emphasis

    We already know how to say, “He’s a good boy”: Is buachaill maith é. The final é is
    needed as subject, and you’re already comfortable with that.

    But to express “He’s a good boy!”, we say Is maith an buachaill é. We pull the adjective up front, and
    add the definite article. This is what leads to that Hiberno-English style of expression, something like,
    “It’s the good boy he is.” If we are talking about a specific person, we’ll need that pronoun as part of
    the usual noun phrase.

    Is breá an lá é. It is a fine day.
    Is dorcha an oíche í. It is a dark night.
    Is deas an bhean í Lady GaGa. Lady Gaga is a nice woman.
    Is mór an trua é! It is a great pity.

    a few adjectives are often used alone with the copula:

    deas nice
    maith good Also maith le
    fíor true
    Is fíor é. It is true.
    Is fíor é sin. That is true.
    Is fíor sin. That is true.
    álainn beautiful, delightful
    aoibhinn delightful, blissful
    fuath hateful Also fuath le
    olc bad, evil

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