Irish Class, August 24, 2009

Irish Class, August 24, 2009

Rang Gaeilge, 24ú lá Mí na Lúnasa


Fadas: áéíóúÁÉÍÓÚ


Reamhfhocail arís — Prepositions yet again

This is the same table we have been working on through the summer. I have been repeating it to keep a
cumulative copy of all the additional notes that came up in each class. This time we worked on
gan, go, go dt&iacute , seachas, & idir.

Réamhfhocail — Prepositions
singular indefinite singular definite plural indefinite plural definite
ag at ag páiste ag an bpáiste ag páistí ag na páistí
as out of, from as bosca as an mbosca as boscaí as na boscaí
let with le bosca
le hÚna
leis an mosca le boscaí leis na boscaí
ó out of, from ó bhaile ón mbaile ó bhailte ó na bhailte
arv on, to ar chlár ar an gclár ar chláir ar na cláir
roimhv before roimh bhalla roimh an mballa roimh bhallí roimh na ballí
thrícv through thrí bhosca thríd an mbosca thrí bhoscaí thrí na boscaí
faoi under, about faoi bhord faoin mbord faoi bhoird faoi na boird
thar past thar fhear thar an bhfear thar fhir thar na fir
de /gə/ except after
dentals. Then /də/
of, from de bhróg
den bhróg
den t-úll

de bhróga
de na bróga
de na h-úa
do /gə/ except
dentals. Then /də/
for do pheann
don pheann
don t-am

do phinn
do na pinn
in in i bpota “in a pot”
in abhainn “in a river”
sa bpota “in the pot”
san abhainn “in the river”
i gcathracha sna cathracha
ganv without gan bhean
gan bean
gan an bean gan bhróga
gan bróga
gan na bróga
go dt&iacute
toward, until go Sasana
go hEireann
go dtí an teach go dtí na tithe
seachas except seachas fear seachas an fear seachas fir seachas na fir
idir between idir bord
idir an bord
idir an
idir boird
idir fuinneoga
idir na boird
idir na


  • Eclipsis with singular definite articles does not apply to nouns beginning with
    t-, d- & s-.
  • Superscripts in the 1st column refer to sounds that used to be part of the language but
    are now gone. c: consonant, v: vowel. Others (t, n)
    mean the specific letter given, e.g. le was once let.
  • thríd is aspirated. Almost /s’ri:d’/ .
  • When the following noun begins with a vowel, i → in, sa → san.
    sna prefixes h- (with the hyphen) to the noun.

  • do & de
    • Both end in vowel, hence the following consonant is lenited.
    • Both pronounced /gə/ in front of consonants. Note vowel forms above
    • do do “for your”, de do “of your”: /gə də/
    • They behave similarly, and are tending to merge in modern spoken Irish.
  • gangana. gan: Lenites a
    bare noun
    (except dentals), because there
    was that final a in gana. If the noun has an
    adjective, or is followed by another noun in a genitive construction, there is no lenition.

    gan an bean “without the
    contrast an bhean
    gan bean bheag without a little woman note bheag (adj.) is lenited bean is f
    gan charr without a car
    gan carr nua without a new car
    gan carr beag without a small
    carr is m
    gan doras without a door dental
    gan dabht without a doubt
    gan fhuinneog without a window
    gan fuinneog mhór without a big window
    gan fuinneogí móra without big

  • go is cognate to comh- “mutual, joint, common, co-” and Latin
    go dtícom (result
    of the nasal).

    go dtí. Eclipsed from the m
    that used to be there. From teach “house”

    go dtí for specific location. Just
    go for countries.

    go dtí an cathair toward the city

  • seachas used to be a noun (“exception”) and then took
    the genitive. seachas bean bheag “except a
    little woman.” The adjective is still lenited after a feminine noun.

  • idir has pronoun forms, but only for the plural (which
    makes sense)

    eadrainn between us
    eadraibh between you all

    eatarthu between

    idir “between” — does not lenite. “both, among”
    — lenites; idir chairde “among friends”.

    See Basic
    , p. 188.

mar “like, as”
mar an mbus like the bus

mar does not have any prepositional pronouns.

ar /er’/ ← aire. r is slender because it used to be between two
slenderizing vowels. Since it used to end in a vowel, it lenites.

ó has not changed much from pIE.

sult satisfaction, pleasure, fun
an sult great pleasure an “very” can be
used with nouns in Irish
rí sult great pleasure slang: Lit. “king pleasure”
ró-mhór too big
dabht doubt m4 pl anna
céad faoin gcéad 100 %

For more on adjectives see Basic
, p. 169.

Next to verb Not next to verb (except autonomous
siad iad

We are not supposed to think of the 2nd as object vs.
subject, but it often works out that way.

Autonomous form example
glantar seomra a room is cleaned
glanadh seomra a room was cleaned
glanfar seomra a room will be cleaned

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