Irish Class, May 18, 2009
Rang Gaeilge, 18ú lá Mí na Bealtaine
- No class 5/25
- Last Spring class at Central 6/1
- Summer meeting location: Loring Park Dunn Bros.
- Winona 7/17-19
- First Fall class at Central 9/14
|Ar ith tú an fheoil fós?||Did you eat the meat yet?|
|Ithim feoil fós||I still eat meat.|
|Ní ithim feoil fós||I don’t eat meat yet.|
|feasta||anymore [with negative verb],
from now on
[with positive verb]
|Used at the end of the
|Ní bheid mé ag ithe feola feasta||I will not be eating meat any
|feoil here is the object of a
so it is in the genitive.
|Beidh mé seacláide feasta.||I will be eating chocolate from now on.|
|An itheann tú feoil feasta?||Do you eat meat anymore?|
|Íosfaidh mé feoil feasta.||I’ll eat meat from now on.|
|Ní íosfaidh mé feoil feasta.||I won’t eat meat anymore.|
|níos mó||any more||Comp. of mór.
English. feasta is better
|Ní cloisim níos mó é.||I don’t hear him anymore.||é at
often does that with pronouns
|Níl obair agam níos mó||I don’t have work anymore.|
|tuilleadh||addition, increase, more||Noun—m1. Following noun in gen.
Can stand alone.
Adverbial form: a thuilleadh
|tuilleadh feola||more meat|
|tuilleadh ama||more time|
|Níl uibheacha ann a thuilleadh.||There are
no more eggs.
|An bhfuil tuilleadh aráin ann?||Is there any more bread left?|
|An bhfuil tuilleadh ann?||Is there any more left?|
|An maith leat tuilleadh tae?||Would you like more tea?||Or Ar mhaith leat tuilleadh tae? See this note.|
|Tá tuilleadh airgid agam.||I have more money.|
|Níl airgead agam a thuilleadh.||I don’t have any more money.|
|tae||tea||m4 gs: tae. npl gpl: taenna.
Sc.G. gs tasa
|Tá tae ann.||There is tea.|
|bog||adj. soft, v. move||vn. bogadh|
|cathaoir||chair||f gs: cathaoireach. npl, gpl:
|mol||v. praise||vn. moladh|
Verbal nouns again
Reverse engineering the verb from the verbal noun: If the vn ends in -adh the
verb is probably 1st conjugation. If it ends in -ú is probably
2nd — Stem ending in -(a)igh.
In class we worked with bog “move.” This complicates things because it can be
both transitive and intransitive: “I moved” vs. “I moved the chair.” My notes are somewhat
confused. I am replacing them with the
examples Wes posted on the web site.
We looked at a 4-fold pattern:
- Simple, bare form of bí. Noun as object
- Simple, bare form of bí. Corresponding pronoun as object
- Modal form. Noun as object
- Modal form. Corresponding pronoun as object
|1||Bhí muid ag ceannach na feola.||We were buying the meat|
|2||Bhí muid á ceannach.||We were buying it.|
|3||Bhí orainn an fheoil a cheannach.||We had to buy the meat.|
|4||Bhí orainn í a cheannach.||We had to buy it.|
|1||Tá sibh ag múchadh an tsolais.||You are turning out the light.|
|2||Tá sibh á mhúchadh.||You are turning it out.|
|3||Caithfidh sibh an solas a mhúchadh.||You will have to turn out the light.|
|4||Caithfidh sibh é a mhúchadh.||You will have to turn it out.|
|1||Tá sibh ag múchadh na soilse.||You are turning out the lights.|
|2||Tá sibh á múchadh.||You are turning them out.|
|3||Caithfidh sibh na soilse a mhúchadh.||You will have to turn out the lights.|
|4||Caithfidh sibh iad a mhúchadh.||You will have to turn them out.|
The (noun) object follows the verbal noun. Since we then have one noun following the other
(the verbal noun is a noun), the second noun (the object) must be in the genitive.
- The recipe:
- Replace noun by pronoun, also in genitive (possessive) form.
- Move this object pronoun immediately in front of the verbal noun.
- Replace ag by do.
- The verbal noun is now possessed by the pronoun. Hence it must have the appropriate mutations,
based on number and gender, of any noun so possessed.
- Apply contractions as needed: do a → á, do ar → dár
mo chara my friend do mo cheannach “buy me” do chara your friend do do cheannach “buy you” a chara his friend á cheannach “buy him/it” a cara her friend á ceannach “buy her/it” a gcara their friend á gceannach “buy them” ár gcara our friend dár gceannach “buy us” bhur gcara your [pl.] friend do bhur gceannach “buy you” [pl.]
Modal construction. Often, but not always based on bí. Both
bí + ar and caith can mean “must” or “have to”.
- The object (noun or pronoun) is moved in front of the verbal noun.
- ag is replaced by a “that”.
- The verbal noun is always lenited. This is not the same as as the lenition by
possession in (2) above.
So the order is [object] + a + [lenited verbal noun].
The hard work was done in (3) above. Here you just replace the object by
é/í/iad as appropriate.
Irish, chapters 19 and 20, for more on the subject.
|solas||light||m1 gs:solais, an tsolais. npl: soilse|
|múch||extinguish, turn off||vn múchadh|
|obair||work||f gs: oibre|
|Beidh an muinteoir ag moladh na hoibre.||The teacher will be praising the work.||Note gen oibre|
|Beidh an muinteoir á moladh.||The teacher will be praising it||obair is fem., so moladh is not lenited.|
|Is deacair leis an muinteoir an obair a mholadh.||It is difficult for the teacher to praise the
|copula has same form for pres. and fut.|
|Is deacair leis an muinteoir í a mholadh.||It is difficult for the teacher to praise it.|
|Las na soilse.||Turn on the lights.|
|Bhí Seorais ag múchadh an tsolais.||George was turning off the light.||an tsolais: gen. because it follows the vn.|
|Bhí sé á mhúchadh.||He was turning it off.|| mhúchadh because solas
|Bhí eagla air an solas a mhúchadh.||He was afraid to turn off the light.||solas is not in the genitive.|
|Bhí eagla air é a mhúchadh.||He was afraid to turn it off.|
|Múchtar an solas.||The light is turned off.|
|Múchfar an solas.||The light will be turned
|Múchadh an solas.||The light was turned
|Looks like the vn., but is a completely
|Rugadh mé i ….||I was born in ….|
Initial mutations after the definite article — an/na
|Beginning with …||Base form (an)||Genitive (an)|
|… a vowel||t||—|
|… a consonant||—||lenited, except for t and d|
|Beginning with …||Base form (an)||Genitive (na)|
|… a vowel||—||h|
|… a consonant||lenited, except for t and d||—|
|Beginning with …||Base form (na)||Genitive (na)|
|… a vowel||h||n|
|… a consonant||—||eclipsed|
|coicís seo chugainn||a fortnight from now||chugainn
Subjunctive is the form in wishes:
Go n-éirí an bóthar leat. May the road rise up to meet
Go n-éirí ← éirigh